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Category:   Device (Embedded Server/Appliance)  >   CPU (Generic) Vendors:   Advanced Micro Devices, Arm Holdings, Intel
(Red Hat Issues Fix) Intel CPU Data Cache Race Conditions Let Local Users Read Arbitrary Virtual CPU Memory
SecurityTracker Alert ID:  1040086
SecurityTracker URL:  http://securitytracker.com/id/1040086
CVE Reference:   CVE-2017-5715, CVE-2017-5753, CVE-2017-5754   (Links to External Site)
Date:  Jan 4 2018
Impact:   Disclosure of system information
Fix Available:  Yes  Vendor Confirmed:  Yes  Exploit Included:  Yes  

Description:   Several vulnerabilities were reported in Intel, AMD, and ARM CPUs. A local user can read arbitrary virtual memory on the target CPU device.

A local user can exploit race conditions in CPU data cache processing to obtain potentially sensitive information on the target system. This can be exploited to read arbitrary virtual memory on the target system, including by a local user on a guest operating system of a virtual machine to read arbitrary memory from other guest systems, the host operating system, and the hypervisor.

In certain cases, a local user can run a specially crafted application to exploit several flaws in the CPU speculative branch instruction execution feature and leverage CPU data cache timing behavior to infer information or read information from various CPU caches.

A local user that can trigger an out-of-bounds index error in an application can read data from another process from the CPU virtual memory [CVE-2017-5753]. The eBPF interpreter or the eBPF JIT engine can be used to create vulnerable code.

A local user can run specially crafted code to cause the CPU to speculatively execute an indirect branch to leak memory contents from another process into a CPU cache and then read the contents of the cache [CVE-2017-5715].

A local user can run specially crafted code to cause the CPU to read memory from a CPU cache before an asynchronous permission check occurs [CVE-2017-5754]. AMD CPUs are reportedly not affected.

The Intel Core, Xeon, Atom, Celeron, and Pentium product lines are affected.

CPUs from AMD and ARM are also affected.

CPUs from other vendors may also affected.

The CVE-2017-5753 and CVE-2017-5715 vulnerabilities are referred to as "Spectre".

The CVE-2017-5754 vulnerability is referred to as "Meltdown".

The original advisories are available at:

https://spectreattack.com/spectre.pdf
https://meltdownattack.com/meltdown.pdf
https://googleprojectzero.blogspot.com/2018/01/reading-privileged-memory-with-side.html

Paul Kocher, Daniel Genkin, Daniel Gruss, Werner Haas, Mike Hamburg, Moritz Lipp, Stefan Mangard, Thomas Prescher, Michael Schwarz, Yuval Yarom, Anders Fogh, Jann Horn, the Google Project Zero Team, and others reported these vulnerabilities.

Impact:   A local user can view arbitrary virtual memory contents on the target CPU device [which can lead to elevated privileges on the target system].
Solution:   Red Hat has issued a fix for kernel-rt.

The Red Hat advisory is available at:

https://access.redhat.com/errata/RHSA-2018:0016

Vendor URL:  access.redhat.com/errata/RHSA-2018:0016 (Links to External Site)
Cause:   Access control error, State error
Underlying OS:  Linux (Red Hat Enterprise)
Underlying OS Comments:  7

Message History:   This archive entry is a follow-up to the message listed below.
Jan 4 2018 Intel/AMD/ARM CPU Data Cache Race Conditions Let Local Users Read Arbitrary Virtual CPU Memory



 Source Message Contents

Subject:  [RHSA-2018:0016-01] Important: kernel-rt security update

-----BEGIN PGP SIGNED MESSAGE-----
Hash: SHA1

=====================================================================
                   Red Hat Security Advisory

Synopsis:          Important: kernel-rt security update
Advisory ID:       RHSA-2018:0016-01
Product:           Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Advisory URL:      https://access.redhat.com/errata/RHSA-2018:0016
Issue date:        2018-01-04
=====================================================================

1. Summary:

An update for kernel-rt is now available for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.

Red Hat Product Security has rated this update as having a security impact
of Important. A Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) base score,
which gives a detailed severity rating, is available for each vulnerability
from the CVE link(s) in the References section.

2. Relevant releases/architectures:

Red Hat Enterprise Linux Realtime (v. 7) - noarch, x86_64
Red Hat Enterprise Linux for Real Time for NFV (v. 7) - noarch, x86_64

3. Description:

The kernel-rt packages provide the Real Time Linux Kernel, which enables
fine-tuning for systems with extremely high determinism requirements.

Security Fix(es):

An industry-wide issue was found in the way many modern microprocessor
designs have implemented speculative execution of instructions (a commonly
used performance optimization). There are three primary variants of the
issue which differ in the way the speculative execution can be exploited.

Note: This issue is present in hardware and cannot be fully fixed via
software update. The updated kernel packages provide software mitigation
for this hardware issue at a cost of potential performance penalty. Please
refer to References section for further information about this issue and
the performance impact.

In this update mitigations for x86-64 architecture are provided.

Variant CVE-2017-5753 triggers the speculative execution by performing a
bounds-check bypass. It relies on the presence of a precisely-defined
instruction sequence in the privileged code as well as the fact that memory
accesses may cause allocation into the microprocessor's data cache even for
speculatively executed instructions that never actually commit (retire). As
a result, an unprivileged attacker could use this flaw to cross the syscall
boundary and read privileged memory by conducting targeted cache
side-channel attacks. (CVE-2017-5753, Important)

Variant CVE-2017-5715 triggers the speculative execution by utilizing
branch target injection. It relies on the presence of a precisely-defined
instruction sequence in the privileged code as well as the fact that memory
accesses may cause allocation into the microprocessor's data cache even for
speculatively executed instructions that never actually commit (retire). As
a result, an unprivileged attacker could use this flaw to cross the syscall
and guest/host boundaries and read privileged memory by conducting targeted
cache side-channel attacks. (CVE-2017-5715, Important)

Variant CVE-2017-5754 relies on the fact that, on impacted microprocessors,
during speculative execution of instruction permission faults, exception
generation triggered by a faulting access is suppressed until the
retirement of the whole instruction block. In a combination with the fact
that memory accesses may populate the cache even when the block is being
dropped and never committed (executed), an unprivileged local attacker
could use this flaw to read privileged (kernel space) memory by conducting
targeted cache side-channel attacks. (CVE-2017-5754, Important)

Note: CVE-2017-5754 affects Intel x86-64 microprocessors. AMD x86-64
microprocessors are not affected by this issue.

Red Hat would like to thank Google Project Zero for reporting these issues.

4. Solution:

For details on how to apply this update, which includes the changes
described in this advisory, refer to:

https://access.redhat.com/articles/11258

The system must be rebooted for this update to take effect.

5. Bugs fixed (https://bugzilla.redhat.com/):

1519778 - CVE-2017-5753 hw: cpu: speculative execution bounds-check bypass
1519780 - CVE-2017-5715 hw: cpu: speculative execution branch target injection
1519781 - CVE-2017-5754 hw: cpu: speculative execution permission faults handling

6. Package List:

Red Hat Enterprise Linux for Real Time for NFV (v. 7):

Source:
kernel-rt-3.10.0-693.11.1.rt56.639.el7.src.rpm

noarch:
kernel-rt-doc-3.10.0-693.11.1.rt56.639.el7.noarch.rpm

x86_64:
kernel-rt-3.10.0-693.11.1.rt56.639.el7.x86_64.rpm
kernel-rt-debug-3.10.0-693.11.1.rt56.639.el7.x86_64.rpm
kernel-rt-debug-debuginfo-3.10.0-693.11.1.rt56.639.el7.x86_64.rpm
kernel-rt-debug-devel-3.10.0-693.11.1.rt56.639.el7.x86_64.rpm
kernel-rt-debug-kvm-3.10.0-693.11.1.rt56.639.el7.x86_64.rpm
kernel-rt-debug-kvm-debuginfo-3.10.0-693.11.1.rt56.639.el7.x86_64.rpm
kernel-rt-debuginfo-3.10.0-693.11.1.rt56.639.el7.x86_64.rpm
kernel-rt-debuginfo-common-x86_64-3.10.0-693.11.1.rt56.639.el7.x86_64.rpm
kernel-rt-devel-3.10.0-693.11.1.rt56.639.el7.x86_64.rpm
kernel-rt-kvm-3.10.0-693.11.1.rt56.639.el7.x86_64.rpm
kernel-rt-kvm-debuginfo-3.10.0-693.11.1.rt56.639.el7.x86_64.rpm
kernel-rt-trace-3.10.0-693.11.1.rt56.639.el7.x86_64.rpm
kernel-rt-trace-debuginfo-3.10.0-693.11.1.rt56.639.el7.x86_64.rpm
kernel-rt-trace-devel-3.10.0-693.11.1.rt56.639.el7.x86_64.rpm
kernel-rt-trace-kvm-3.10.0-693.11.1.rt56.639.el7.x86_64.rpm
kernel-rt-trace-kvm-debuginfo-3.10.0-693.11.1.rt56.639.el7.x86_64.rpm

Red Hat Enterprise Linux Realtime (v. 7):

Source:
kernel-rt-3.10.0-693.11.1.rt56.639.el7.src.rpm

noarch:
kernel-rt-doc-3.10.0-693.11.1.rt56.639.el7.noarch.rpm

x86_64:
kernel-rt-3.10.0-693.11.1.rt56.639.el7.x86_64.rpm
kernel-rt-debug-3.10.0-693.11.1.rt56.639.el7.x86_64.rpm
kernel-rt-debug-debuginfo-3.10.0-693.11.1.rt56.639.el7.x86_64.rpm
kernel-rt-debug-devel-3.10.0-693.11.1.rt56.639.el7.x86_64.rpm
kernel-rt-debuginfo-3.10.0-693.11.1.rt56.639.el7.x86_64.rpm
kernel-rt-debuginfo-common-x86_64-3.10.0-693.11.1.rt56.639.el7.x86_64.rpm
kernel-rt-devel-3.10.0-693.11.1.rt56.639.el7.x86_64.rpm
kernel-rt-trace-3.10.0-693.11.1.rt56.639.el7.x86_64.rpm
kernel-rt-trace-debuginfo-3.10.0-693.11.1.rt56.639.el7.x86_64.rpm
kernel-rt-trace-devel-3.10.0-693.11.1.rt56.639.el7.x86_64.rpm

These packages are GPG signed by Red Hat for security.  Our key and
details on how to verify the signature are available from
https://access.redhat.com/security/team/key/

7. References:

https://access.redhat.com/security/updates/classification/#important
https://access.redhat.com/security/vulnerabilities/speculativeexecution
https://access.redhat.com/security/cve/CVE-2017-5753
https://access.redhat.com/security/cve/CVE-2017-5715
https://access.redhat.com/security/cve/CVE-2017-5754

8. Contact:

The Red Hat security contact is <secalert@redhat.com>. More contact
details at https://access.redhat.com/security/team/contact/

Copyright 2018 Red Hat, Inc.
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