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Category:   Application (VPN)  >   OpenSSH Vendors:
OpenSSH Multiple Flaws Let Remote Authenticated Users Gain Elevated Privileges and Local Privileged Users Obtain Host Private Keys
SecurityTracker Alert ID:  1037490
SecurityTracker URL:
CVE Reference:   CVE-2016-10009, CVE-2016-10010, CVE-2016-10011, CVE-2016-10012   (Links to External Site)
Date:  Dec 19 2016
Impact:   Denial of service via network, Disclosure of authentication information, Execution of arbitrary code via network, Modification of system information, Modification of user information, Root access via local system, User access via network
Fix Available:  Yes  Vendor Confirmed:  Yes  
Version(s): prior to 7.4
Description:   Multiple vulnerabilities were reported in OpenSSH. A remote authenticated user can gain elevated privileges. A remote authenticated user can write files on the target system. A local user can obtain private keys on the target system.

A remote authenticated user with control of a sshd service can return a request to the target ssh-agent to load a specially crafted PKCS#11 module across a forwarded agent channel and execute arbitrary code on or write files to the target system running the ssh-agent [CVE-2016-10009].

A user that can exploit a separate vulnerability on sshd may be able to gain root privileges via a forwarded Unix-domain socket [CVE-2016-10010]. Systems with privilege separation disabled are affected.

A local privileged user may be able to exploit a privilege separation flaw to obtain host private key material [CVE-2016-10011].

A user that can exploit a separate vulnerability on sshd may be able to gain elevated privileges due to a flaw in boundary checks in the shared memory manager that may be skipped by some optimizing compilers [CVE-2016-10012].

A remote user may be able to bypass address-based access controls if the AllowUser directive is configured with invalid CIDR address ranges.

Jann Horn of Project Zero, Guido Vranken, and Laurence Parry reported these vulnerabilities.

Impact:   A remote authenticated user can gain elevated privileges on the target system.

A remote authenticated user can modify files on the target system.

A local user can obtain passwords on the target system.

Solution:   The vendor has issued a fix (7.4).

The vendor advisory is available at:

Vendor URL: (Links to External Site)
Cause:   Access control error, Boundary error
Underlying OS:  Linux (Any), UNIX (Any), Windows (Any)

Message History:   This archive entry has one or more follow-up message(s) listed below.
Jan 11 2017 (FreeBSD Issues Fix) OpenSSH Multiple Flaws Let Remote Authenticated Users Gain Elevated Privileges and Local Privileged Users Obtain Host Private Keys
FreeBSD has issued a fix for FreeBSD 10.3 and 11.0.
Feb 21 2017 (IBM Issues Fix for IBM AIX) OpenSSH Multiple Flaws Let Remote Authenticated Users Gain Elevated Privileges and Local Privileged Users Obtain Host Private Keys
IBM has issued a fix for IBM AIX 5.3, 6.1, 7.1, and 7.2.

 Source Message Contents

Date:  Mon, 19 Dec 2016 06:56:04 -0700 (MST)
Subject:  [oss-security] Announce: OpenSSH 7.4 released

OpenSSH 7.4 has just been released. It will be available from the
mirrors listed at shortly.

OpenSSH is a 100% complete SSH protocol 2.0 implementation and
includes sftp client and server support. OpenSSH also includes
transitional support for the legacy SSH 1.3 and 1.5 protocols
that may be enabled at compile-time.

Once again, we would like to thank the OpenSSH community for their
continued support of the project, especially those who contributed
code or patches, reported bugs, tested snapshots or donated to the
project. More information on donations may be found at:

Future deprecation notice

We plan on retiring more legacy cryptography in future releases,

 * In approximately August 2017, removing remaining support for the
   SSH v.1 protocol (client-only and currently compile-time disabled).

 * In the same release, removing support for Blowfish and RC4 ciphers
   and the RIPE-MD160 HMAC. (These are currently run-time disabled).

 * Refusing all RSA keys smaller than 1024 bits (the current minimum
   is 768 bits)

 * The next release of OpenSSH will remove support for running sshd(8)
   with privilege separation disabled.

 * The next release of portable OpenSSH will remove support for
   OpenSSL version prior to 1.0.1.

This list reflects our current intentions, but please check the final
release notes for future releases.

Potentially-incompatible changes

This release includes a number of changes that may affect existing

 * This release removes server support for the SSH v.1 protocol.

 * ssh(1): Remove 3des-cbc from the client's default proposal. 64-bit
   block ciphers are not safe in 2016 and we don't want to wait until
   attacks like SWEET32 are extended to SSH. As 3des-cbc was the
   only mandatory cipher in the SSH RFCs, this may cause problems
   connecting to older devices using the default configuration,
   but it's highly likely that such devices already need explicit
   configuration for key exchange and hostkey algorithms already
 * sshd(8): Remove support for pre-authentication compression.
   Doing compression early in the protocol probably seemed reasonable
   in the 1990s, but today it's clearly a bad idea in terms of both
   cryptography (cf. multiple compression oracle attacks in TLS) and
   attack surface. Pre-auth compression support has been disabled by
   default for >10 years. Support remains in the client.
 * ssh-agent will refuse to load PKCS#11 modules outside a whitelist
   of trusted paths by default. The path whitelist may be specified
   at run-time.

 * sshd(8): When a forced-command appears in both a certificate and
   an authorized keys/principals command= restriction, sshd will now
   refuse to accept the certificate unless they are identical.
   The previous (documented) behaviour of having the certificate
   forced-command override the other could be a bit confusing and
 * sshd(8): Remove the UseLogin configuration directive and support
   for having /bin/login manage login sessions.
Changes since OpenSSH 7.3

This is primarily a bugfix release.


 * ssh-agent(1): Will now refuse to load PKCS#11 modules from paths
   outside a trusted whitelist (run-time configurable). Requests to
   load modules could be passed via agent forwarding and an attacker
   could attempt to load a hostile PKCS#11 module across the forwarded
   agent channel: PKCS#11 modules are shared libraries, so this would
   result in code execution on the system running the ssh-agent if the
   attacker has control of the forwarded agent-socket (on the host
   running the sshd server) and the ability to write to the filesystem
   of the host running ssh-agent (usually the host running the ssh
   client). Reported by Jann Horn of Project Zero.

 * sshd(8): When privilege separation is disabled, forwarded Unix-
   domain sockets would be created by sshd(8) with the privileges of
   'root' instead of the authenticated user. This release refuses
   Unix-domain socket forwarding when privilege separation is disabled
   (Privilege separation has been enabled by default for 14 years).
   Reported by Jann Horn of Project Zero.

 * sshd(8): Avoid theoretical leak of host private key material to
   privilege-separated child processes via realloc() when reading
   keys. No such leak was observed in practice for normal-sized keys,
   nor does a leak to the child processes directly expose key material
   to unprivileged users. Reported by Jann Horn of Project Zero.
 * sshd(8): The shared memory manager used by pre-authentication
   compression support had a bounds checks that could be elided by
   some optimising compilers. Additionally, this memory manager was
   incorrectly accessible when pre-authentication compression was
   disabled. This could potentially allow attacks against the
   privileged monitor process from the sandboxed privilege-separation
   process (a compromise of the latter would be required first).
   This release removes support for pre-authentication compression
   from sshd(8). Reported by Guido Vranken using the Stack unstable
   optimisation identification tool (

 * sshd(8): Fix denial-of-service condition where an attacker who
   sends multiple KEXINIT messages may consume up to 128MB per
   connection. Reported by Shi Lei of Gear Team, Qihoo 360.

 * sshd(8): Validate address ranges for AllowUser and DenyUsers
   directives at configuration load time and refuse to accept invalid
   ones. It was previously possible to specify invalid CIDR address
   ranges (e.g. user@ and these would always match,
   possibly resulting in granting access where it was not intended.
   Reported by Laurence Parry.

New Features

 * ssh(1): Add a proxy multiplexing mode to ssh(1) inspired by the
   version in PuTTY by Simon Tatham. This allows a multiplexing
   client to communicate with the master process using a subset of
   the SSH packet and channels protocol over a Unix-domain socket,
   with the main process acting as a proxy that translates channel
   IDs, etc.  This allows multiplexing mode to run on systems that
   lack file- descriptor passing (used by current multiplexing
   code) and potentially, in conjunction with Unix-domain socket
   forwarding, with the client and multiplexing master process on
   different machines. Multiplexing proxy mode may be invoked using
   "ssh -O proxy ..."

 * sshd(8): Add a sshd_config DisableForwaring option that disables
   X11, agent, TCP, tunnel and Unix domain socket forwarding, as well
   as anything else we might implement in the future. Like the
   'restrict' authorized_keys flag, this is intended to be a simple
   and future-proof way of restricting an account.

 * sshd(8), ssh(1): Support the "curve25519-sha256" key exchange
   method. This is identical to the currently-supported method named

 * sshd(8): Improve handling of SIGHUP by checking to see if sshd is
   already daemonised at startup and skipping the call to daemon(3)
   if it is. This ensures that a SIGHUP restart of sshd(8) will
   retain the same process-ID as the initial execution. sshd(8) will
   also now unlink the PidFile prior to SIGHUP restart and re-create
   it after a successful restart, rather than leaving a stale file in
   the case of a configuration error. bz#2641

 * sshd(8): Allow ClientAliveInterval and ClientAliveCountMax
   directives to appear in sshd_config Match blocks.

 * sshd(8): Add %-escapes to AuthorizedPrincipalsCommand to match
   those supported by AuthorizedKeysCommand (key, key type,
   fingerprint, etc.) and a few more to provide access to the
   contents of the certificate being offered.

 * Added regression tests for string matching, address matching and
   string sanitisation functions.

 * Improved the key exchange fuzzer harness.

 * ssh(1): Allow IdentityFile to successfully load and use
   certificates that have no corresponding bare public key. bz#2617
   certificate (and no

 * ssh(1): Fix public key authentication when multiple
   authentication is in use and publickey is not just the first
   method attempted. bz#2642

 * regress: Allow the PuTTY interop tests to run unattended. bz#2639
 * ssh-agent(1), ssh(1): improve reporting when attempting to load
   keys from PKCS#11 tokens with fewer useless log messages and more
   detail in debug messages. bz#2610

 * ssh(1): When tearing down ControlMaster connections, don't
   pollute stderr when LogLevel=quiet.

 * sftp(1): On ^Z wait for underlying ssh(1) to suspend before
   suspending sftp(1) to ensure that ssh(1) restores the terminal mode
   correctly if suspended during a password prompt.

 * ssh(1): Avoid busy-wait when ssh(1) is suspended during a password

 * ssh(1), sshd(8): Correctly report errors during sending of ext-
   info messages.

 * sshd(8): fix NULL-deref crash if sshd(8) received an out-of-
   sequence NEWKEYS message.

 * sshd(8): Correct list of supported signature algorithms sent in
   the server-sig-algs extension. bz#2547

 * sshd(8): Fix sending ext_info message if privsep is disabled.

 * sshd(8): more strictly enforce the expected ordering of privilege
   separation monitor calls used for authentication and allow them
   only when their respective authentication methods are enabled
   in the configuration

 * sshd(8): Fix uninitialised optlen in getsockopt() call; harmless
   on Unix/BSD but potentially crashy on Cygwin.

 * Fix false positive reports caused by explicit_bzero(3) not being
   recognised as a memory initialiser when compiled with
 * sshd_config(5): Use 2001:db8::/32, the official IPv6 subnet for
   configuration examples.


 * On environments configured with Turkish locales, fall back to the
   C/POSIX locale to avoid errors in configuration parsing caused by
   that locale's unique handling of the letters 'i' and 'I'. bz#2643

 * sftp-server(8), ssh-agent(1): Deny ptrace on OS X using
   ptrace(PT_DENY_ATTACH, ..)

 * ssh(1), sshd(8): Unbreak AES-CTR ciphers on old (~0.9.8) OpenSSL.

 * Fix compilation for libcrypto compiled without RIPEMD160 support.

 * contrib: Add a gnome-ssh-askpass3 with GTK+3 support. bz#2640
 * sshd(8): Improve PRNG reseeding across privilege separation and
   force libcrypto to obtain a high-quality seed before chroot or

 * All: Explicitly test for broken strnvis. NetBSD added an strnvis
   and unfortunately made it incompatible with the existing one in
   OpenBSD and Linux's libbsd (the former having existed for over ten
   years). Try to detect this mess, and assume the only safe option
   if we're cross compiling.


 - SHA1 (openssh-7.4.tar.gz) = 1e2073f95d5ead8f2814b4b6c0700bcd533c410f
 - SHA1 (openssh-7.4p1.tar.gz) = 2330bbf82ed08cf3ac70e0acf00186ef3eeb97e0

 - SHA256 (openssh-7.4.tar.gz) = +GEXh7Xr2J87cq1uA97hF9e+3lfOQ2LKxXGdmFXREf0
 - SHA256 (openssh-7.4p1.tar.gz) = Gx/EoU4gJCkxgZJO0khy5vLgYpPz6JJqN2uK7EgfGdE=

Please note that the SHA256 signatures are base64 encoded and not
hexadecimal (which is the default for most checksum tools). The PGP
key used to sign the releases is available as RELEASE_KEY.asc from
the mirror sites.

Reporting Bugs:

- Please read
  Security bugs should be reported directly to

OpenSSH is brought to you by Markus Friedl, Niels Provos, Theo de
Raadt, Kevin Steves, Damien Miller, Darren Tucker, Jason McIntyre,
Tim Rice and Ben Lindstrom.


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